Kidneys are considered as one of the vital organs in the human body and are responsible for removing excess wastes, fluids and minerals. The other major function of the kidneys is to make hormones that help in keeping the blood healthy and also makes the bones strong.
If any damage is caused to the kidneys then it can result in over accumulation of harmful wastes in the body. The blood pressure of a person may also rise. Kidney failure is a condition that happens when the body retains excess fluid and is also not making enough red blood cells. Kidney failure can be categorized into two types- acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.
A number of symptoms are responsible for kidney failure. One of the signs that a physician can pick while examining a patient include low urine creatinine level. This sign indicates that the kidneys are not doing their work properly of filtering out the blood. Acute kidney failure too has many symptoms such as swelling of the legs and arms, vomiting, and fluid retention elsewhere in the body, nausea, slow or no urine production, change in mental status, high blood pressure and decreased sensation of the feet or hands. The electrolyte levels (like sodium and potassium) in the body are also maintained by the kidneys, and these levels can rise if symptoms are ignored. This increased level can result in cardiovascular problems and heart arrhythmias.
The sudden loss of kidney function that results in injury and illness is known as acute renal failure. The sudden loss of blood flow to the kidneys is considered as the major cause of kidney failure that can be seen in the case of acute dehydration, septic shock, burns, surgery or heavy bleeding. The other cause could be infections that also result in kidney failure. The clotting of the small blood vessels by immune diseases can cause sudden kidney blockage and results in kidney failure.
A long-term condition in which the kidneys do not work properly is known as chronic kidney disease (CKD). The symptoms of this condition are generally detected in its advanced stage. Urine tests and blood tests can help in detecting chronic kidney disease in the early stages. Some of the symptoms of CKD include itching, weight loss, frequent hiccups, vomiting, fatigue and nausea. It has also been seen that the symptoms of CKD are similar to acute kidney failure after a certain point of time. Some of these symptoms include easy bruising, high blood pressure, nighttime urination, seizures, poor urine output, muscle twitching, decreased alertness and poor sensation of the feet or hands.
The condition of chronic kidney failure is usually not noticed until the kidneys are badly damaged and also have lost their functionality. CKD is caused by a number of conditions that include high blood pressure and diabetes. People who are suffering from chronic kidney disease may take medications and some people may also require dialysis. Acute kidney failure and chronic kidney failure cause over accumulation of waste products and fluid within the body. Kidney failure affects nearly all the body systems.