The branch of medicine that study tumors of the nervous system is termed as neuro-oncology. Following are several objectives of neuro-oncology –
Cancerous growth or tumor in the brain is termed as brain cancer. A tumor is usually a mass of cells that reproduce themselves in an abnormal manner. Brain tumor can be categorized into two types- metastatic brain tumor and primary brain tumor. A metastatic brain tumor can begin from any part of the body and travels to the brain. Whereas, a primary brain tumor begins within the brain. These brain tumors can be malignant with cancer cells or benign with no cancer cells.
The causes of primary brain tumors are not known. However, some researchers believe that these tumors can be due to combination of events. Researchers are now working on certain areas that include –
Secondary brain tumors are responsible for causing a large portion of brain tumors.
The following tests are performed for diagnosing brain tumor –
Surgery: Surgery is performed for treating adult brain tumor. After diagnosing, the surgical procedure is performed for removing the tumor. A part of the skull is removed and sample of the brain tissue is also taken by using a needle for the purpose of biopsy. Tissues are then viewed under the microscope for seeing the presence of cancer cells. If the tumor is suspected, then surgical procedure is performed safely for removing the tumor as much as possible.
Chemotherapy: This is another treatment option for brain tumors in which drugs are used for stopping the growth of cancer cells. The purpose of these drugs is to either stop the cells from dividing or to kill these cells. Chemotherapy is either injected into a muscle or vein or is taken by mouth. These drugs then travel into the bloodstream and reach to the cancer cells in the entire body (systemic chemotherapy). Regional chemotherapy is the procedure where chemotherapy is positioned into a body cavity such as abdomen or into the spinal column. The drugs then may affect cancer cells in those areas. An anticancer drug can be delivered by using a dissolving wafer directly at the brain tumor site when the tumor has already been removed by surgery. Chemotherapy is given to the patient depending on the stage and type of the cancer.
Biological Therapy: In this therapy, the immune system of a patient is used in order to fight with cancer. The natural defenses of the body are restored to fight against cancer by using substances that are either made in the laboratory or are made by the body itself. This entire procedure is known as immunotherapy or biotherapy.
Hyperthermia Therapy: During this therapy, the tissue of the body is exposed to high temperatures to kill and damage cancer cells or these cancer cells can also be made more sensitive to the effects of radiation.
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery: Neurological diseases or disorders can be treated with the help of this surgery. In this non-invasive method, the brain is operated without using general anesthesia or by making any type of incisions.
Radiation Therapy: Some of the new methods are developed for delivering radiation therapy –
The cost of brain cancer surgery in India is relatively lower than other developed countries. However, the cost of the treatment depends upon the type, location and stage of the brain cancer.