What are Nasal Polyps ?
The nasal polyps are painless, soft and non-cancerous growths that lines either in the sinuses or in the nasal passages. It is caused by severe inflammation of recurring infection, immune disorders, asthma and drug sensitivity. The development of mucus membranes creates a number of symptoms that include headaches, chronic sinus infection and sinus congestion. The problems due to nasal polyps are-
- It provides a space for bacteria to grow
- If the condition is left untreated, it can lead to the growth of septicemia of either one or more sinus cavity. These promote the growth of bacteria having mucus in the sinus cavity.
- It obstructs the air to move freely through the nasal passages.
The bacteria of the mucus are the result of 2 processes –
- The body is producing surplus mucus due to nasal polyp.
- The conditions of swelling and inflammation narrows the exit ways that prevent the drainage of normal mucus. This leads to the growth of bacteria having nasal mucus in the cavities causing more chronic infections.
What causes Nasal Polyps ?
- The condition of edema arises when there is a large production of fluid in the nasal membranes and sinus that causes engorgement and swelling of nasal polyps. Through the sinus opening, the enlargement of these fluid bags can drop into the nasal cavity.
- The irritants (alcohol and tobacco) can expose the membranes to many infections and ultimately membrane lining swells.
- The main reason of nasal polyps is the constant inflammation inside the sinuses and nose. The reasons for this inflammation could be pollution in the atmosphere, sinus infection or allergies.
Treatment for Nasal Polyps
The nasal polyps can be treated with the help of surgery, steroid treatments and nasal sprays. Endoscopic surgery can also treat the nasal polyp and the effect of the treatment lasts for about twelve months (before re-growth). The recovery period is 1-3 weeks. However in some cases, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) may also be required.
Nasal Polyps Removal
The surgical procedure is performed to eliminate the swollen skin lining that is in the nasal sinuses. Infection and allergy are the probable causes of swollen skin lining. This condition poses difficulty in breathing through the nose.
Nasal Polyps Symptoms
- Xerostomia (dry mouth) and mouth breathing
- Congestion or nasal obstruction
- Throbbing of the face, pain and pressure
- Rhinitis (running nose)
- Reduced sense of taste
- Condition of loss of smell that has been caused by the blockage of nasal polyps
- Dull headaches
- Persistent nasal stuffiness that makes breathing through the nasal passages difficult
- Discolored and thick nasal drainage
- Excessive nasal drainage
- Severe recurrent sinus infections
The purpose of this operation is to remove the polyps from within the nose. There are no incisions outside as the surgery is performed through the nose. Two techniques are involved in this operation and the choice of technique depends upon the location of polyps in the nose. The technique of Intranasal polypectomy is performed by using small graspers when the polyp is visible and reaches from the front of the nose. The other technique used is endoscopic nasal polypectomy wherein small telescopes are used to get a clear view of the nose. This is done due to the small size of the polyps that are located in the sinuses or on the roof of the nose.