What is Neurosurgery ?
The surgery of the nervous system is termed as neurosurgery. Neurosurgery is a medical specialty that is primarily concerned with the treatment and diagnosis of the patients who are suffering from disorders or diseases of the spinal column, spinal cord, brain and peripheral nerves within all parts of the body. Both pediatric and adult patients are included in the neurological care. A neurological surgeon recommends surgical and non-surgical care depending upon the nature of the disease or injury.
What is Pediatric Neurosurgery ?
Pediatric neurology is primarily concerned with any disorder of the central nervous system such as spinal cord, brain, muscles and nerves in children. A pediatric neurologist treats and diagnosis conditions that include behavioral problems such as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and seizure disorders such as epilepsy.
Pediatric Neurology Diseases and Conditions
Pediatric neurosurgeons treat different types of diseases/conditions –
- Epilepsy : This condition is a brain disorder that results in recurring seizures. These seizures occur when the neurons or nerve cell clusters within the brain are sending incorrect signals.
- Hydrocephalus: Hydrocephalus is the condition where there is excess accumulation of fluid inside the brain. This condition can be either present at the time of birth or congenital.
- Spasticity : Spasticity is a condition of muscle disorder which is categorized by the inability to control the stiff or tight muscles. When the central nervous system causes an imbalance of the signals results in the condition of spasticity. This imbalance can be seen in those people who are suffering from traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury and stroke.
- Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors: These tumors are found in the tissue within the bony spinal column or the skull that builds-up the central nervous system. These tumors can be found in any part of the body and occurs when the genes regulating cell growth become mutated or damaged.
- Craniosynostosis: In this birth defect, one or more joints in between the bones of the skull close early or prematurely, prior to the formation of the brain in an infant. In this condition the head is misshapen and the brain cannot grow in its original shape.
- Chairi Malformations: They are structural defects in the cerebellum ( a part of the brain which controls balance).
- Vascular and Cerebrovascular Disorders: The flow of the blood inside the brain is referred to as cerebrovascular. When a part of the brain is permanently or temporarily affected by lack of blood flow or bleeding causes cerebrovascular diseases.
- Pediatric Spinal Disorders: Pediatric spinal disorders treatment and diagnosis varies from adult spinal disorders. A large number of traumatic, developmental, neoplastic and congenital disorders can occur in pediatric age group.
- Cerebral Palsy : Cerebral palsy is a set of disorders associated with functioning of brain and nervous system, affecting movement, learning, hearing ability in a child. It can be of various types like spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic and mixed.
Symptoms of Pediatric Neurological Disorders
- Seizures or Spasms
- Concentration Issues
- Poor Muscle Coordination
- Muscle Tone Issues
Diagnosis of Pediatric Disorders
A number of tests are performed that include –
- Psychological and educational evaluations
- Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies: This is done for measuring muscle responsiveness. Brief electrical impulses are applied to the skin at various sites.
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): MRI techniques are used for detecting the problems of veins, blood vessels and arteries.
- Angiography: In this, blood vessels images are produced including brain and other areas of the body.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): In this, magnetic field along with radio wave energy pulses is used for producing images of the structures and organs within the body.
- Computer tomography (CT) scanning and 3D reconstruction CT: X-rays are used for creating cross-sectional images of the body.
Treatments for Pediatric Diseases
There are few non-invasive treatment procedures by which congenital vascular malformations, epilepsy, movement disorders and brain tumors can be effectively treated. Patients who are suffering from medically refractory epilepsy can be treated by using Ketogenic Diet Program.