What is Cardiology?
Cardiology is a medical term that specializes in dealing with disorders that take place in the human heart. This field looks into the diagnosis and treatments of various kinds of heart disorders such as heart failure, congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, Electrophysiology and valvular heart disease.
Today Cardiology treatment in India has come up as a suitable option in order to get rid of any of the heart defects as the cost in India of any of the treatments is the best and that too at rates that are absolutely affordable. Because of these benefits of choosing in India, any of the treatments, many foreigners have come down here in order to solve their trouble of heart diseases.
Angiography (Including Non-Ionic Contrast)
Angiography is a medical procedure performed to visualize and image the inside of the blood vessels and body organs, especially the heart chambers, veins and arteries. This imaging technique requires a non-ionic contrast medium.
Angioplasty (Including Non-Ionic Contrast)
Angioplasty is a surgical treatment to widen the constricted blood vessels or remove obstacles primarily the coronary artery. A non-ionic contrast aids the imaging to be of higher clarity. The two techniques of angioplasty are- balloon angioplasty which clears the obstruction with a balloon while the other method is placing a metal stent to unblock the blockage.
ASD (Atrial septal defect) Closure / Repair (Adult)
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital cardiac irregularity. Commonly known as the hole in the septum of the heart muscle, the ASD closure is a procedure performed to cure the ASD. The technique is performed by a catheter. The closure device to repair the hole is passed through a blood vessel up to the heart.
ASD Heart Port Surgery
ASD Heart Port Surgery is a surgical procedure to treat ASD, Atrial septal defect is also commonly known as the hole in the heart. The method involves creating a small opening in the right chest to access the heart. Tubes are inserted in the vessels of the groin to repair the damaged heart valves.
PAortic valve replacement (AVR /MVR)
Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a surgical procedure to replace the aortic valve. The open-heart surgery method can be done with a mechanical valve or a donor valve. Similar to the medical technique, mitral valve replacement (MVR) is performed to replace the abnormal valve.
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty is the medical treatment performed under anesthesia to widen the heart valves when blocked or narrowed. The procedure requires the insertion of a thin flexible tube attached with the balloon through the artery in the arm or the groin. The inflated balloon gradually widens up the valve opening.
A Bentall procedure is a cardiac medical procedure to cure aorta problems involving the composite valve-graft replacement. The method is used mostly for treating the aortic valve, ascending aorta, and aortic root in addition of substituting the coronary arteries into the grafts.
The Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt is a surgical procedure for targeting cardiac problems. The temporary medical treatment is for children until they are ready for surgery and other treatments. The pain-relieving technique increases the pulmonic blood flow in duct-dependent cyanotic heart defects.
CABG stands for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. The surgical procedure is done to allow adequate blood flow to the heart. The treatment also delivers the required nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle. The bypass graft is collected from a vein from the leg or the inner chest wall artery.
CABG – Redo
CABG – Redo is more complicated as compared to the primary CABG. The treatment is recommended for elderly patients having more comorbid conditions. This is also carried out on patients with non-cardiac arteries and more sclerotic coronary compared to the primary CABG.
CABG + AVR/MVR
In CABG and AVR/MVR, the defective valve is replaced. The process involves providing a bypass or detour around the narrowed or blocked part of the coronary artery.
A surgical procedure, CABG – High risk involves removal of a part of an artery or the vein or from other areas of the body. Only those arteries or veins which are free of blockage are chosen and inserted to redirect the blood. They also help to bypass the blockage of heart vessels. This procedure is generally carried out on patients at high-risk.
CABG or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft is a treatment done to restore the nutrient and oxygen supply to the heart muscle. This is then followed by VSD/ASD closure, an abbreviation for Ventricular Septal Defect closure or Atrial Septal Defect closure. The surgery is suggested to close the ventricular septal or atrial septal defect by a surgical process.
In Cabrol treatment, the ascending aorta is replaced with a composite graft. It further involves direct reimplantation of coronary arteries into an interposition graft. The procedure is kept as a backup in case of failure of Bentall or button procedures.
Closed Heart Surgery
Closed heart surgery treats the problems in the major blood vessels like pulmonary arteries or aorta. Pulmonary artery repair, vascular ring division and shunt procedures are generally included in the surgery.
Coarctoplasty is nothing but the process involved in narrowing the aorta in adults. In this treatment, a self-expandable stent is implanted. However, pre-dilatation is carried out in balloon coarctoplasty. It further involves the embedding of self-expandable nitinol stents using a balloon.
Complex CABG – Pump On/Off
Also known as an off-pump procedure, the Complex CABG – pump off process is quite similar to the conventional CABG technique. Mainly an on or off-pump CABG process balances the bloodless surgical field. An aortic disease precluding bypass is treated by an off-pump CABG.
Double valve replacement
Carried out under general anesthesia, double valve replacement involves replacing both the mitral valve and aortic valve of the heart. The treatment is referred for the patients suffering from the acquired disease of the heart valve or congenital valve defect.
EPS & RFA
Electrophysiology Study or EPS involves introducing electrodes into the heart. The electrodes so introduced monitor the abnormalities in the heart rhythm and conduction. On the other hand, Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation or RFA is done to deliver radiofrequency electrical energy. The energy produces superficial burns in order to remove the abnormal focus.
Fontan is a surgical process that is carried out on pediatric patients having single ventricles in the heart. The treatment involves the diversion of venous blood from IVC (Inferior Vena Cava) and SVC (Superior Vena Cava) to the pulmonary arteries.
Heart port surgery
Heart port surgery also known as minimally invasive heart surgery is an effective and safe approach used for cardiac surgeries. It is being adopted over the traditional open-heart surgery as it is performed by making a small incision. The slit is made on the right side of the chest to gain access to the heart.
Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, Valve repair and replacement, Off-pump coronary artery bypass and Lead placement are the types of heart port surgery.
ICD Combo Device (Only Surgery)
ICD Combo Device is an implant device that is placed in the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart rhythms and also detects fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia.
Mini Sternotomy + RT Carotid Endarterectomy
Mini Sternotomy is an approach for minimally invasive surgery. The procedure involves making an incision that is smaller as compared to standard sternotomy. Along with that, this procedure is better as it causes less trauma to the chest wall tissues. The surgeons perform carotid endarterectomy through Mini Sternotomy which is a process for reducing the risk of stroke by narrowing the carotid artery or correcting stenosis.
The Norwood procedure is a way for creating a functional systematic circuit in patients to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The procedure comprises of three stages, the first one is where the right ventricle is converted into the main ventricle pumping blood to the lungs and body. The aorta and the main pulmonary artery are connected and then the main pulmonary artery is cut off and a shunt is placed between them to supply blood.
In the second stage, the shunt is disconnected so as to connect the pulmonary artery to the superior vena cava. It is a vein that carries deoxygenated blood which will now send half of the blood to the lungs without entering the ventricle. The last i.e., the third stage is the Fontan operation.
Pacemaker Implant Double Chamber (Only Surgery)
A pacemaker is a small device that is placed in the abdomen or chest to help control abnormalities in the heart rhythms. Pacemaker implant with double chamber has two leads, one goes into the right atrium (upper chamber) and the other one in the right bottom chamber called the ventricle. The device with the help of electrical pulses prompts the heart to beat at a normal pace.
Pacemaker Implant Single Chamber (Only Surgery)
This is a pacemaker with one lead which is connected to one chamber of the heart to treat abnormal heartbeat.
PDA device closure under GA
PDA device closure is a process in which a catheter (thin tube) is inserted through a blood vessel to the heart. Followed by a closure device being threaded and is placed through the catheter into the PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus). After the successful placing of the device, the catheter is removed.
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery – ASD/AV/VSD Repair, MV Repair/Pediatric TOF
ASD/AV/VSD Repair: Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Atrioventricular (AV) Canal Defect, Ventricular Septal Defect are all defects in the heart. The same is repaired by the closure of the holes in the atrial or the ventricular septa with the use of a patch and reconstruction of the common atrioventricular valve.
MV Repair: This process is adopted for patients with mitral regurgitation. For this, the tissue is removed or reshaped, patching the tears or holes in the valve is done, or separating the fused flaps.
Pediatric TOF: It is a rare case which is caused by a combination of four defects namely pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta and right ventricular hypertrophy. The surgeons repair TOF (Tetralogy of Fallot) to improve the flow of blood to the lungs. In the surgery, either the pulmonary valves are replaced or the pulmonary blood vessels are widened.
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery – Conduit Repair / ASO/AV Canal
Supported by stents, Conduits cover the heart membrane. Helpful for pediatric patients, the process is carried out to cure congenital heart diseases. In order to adjust the arteries at their exact place, Atrial switch operation which is a surgical procedure is carried out. A process which uses one or two patches for the closure of the hole is usually done to treat Atrioventricular canal defects.
A condition in which the pulmonary veins drain the blood into the right atrium is referred to as TAPVC. In Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection, open-heart surgery is carried out to reconnect the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. Doing so also cures the atrial septal defect.
VSD Closure / Repair (Adult)
In order to treat a septal defect in the heart, VSD repair is recommended. The surgical technique involves closing the hole with a special patch or stitches. General anesthesia is given to the patient before carrying out the process.
Frequently Asked Questions about Cardiology
A normal human heart beats 70 to 80 times in 1 minute which means 1,00,000 times a day. The heart has 4 chambers- two upper chambers and two lower chambers known as Atria and Ventricles respectively. The right atrium of the heart gets de-oxygenated blood flow which in turn flows through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery into the lungs. The de-oxygenated blood gets purified in the lungs and flows back through the same route to the rest of the body. The blood vessels which fed the heart are known as coronary arteries.
The stiffness that occurred in the very small arteries led to High Blood Pressure. A low salt diet, stress management, regular exercise and weight control are the measures that can control High Blood Pressure. If your BP is not controlled by these measures, the doctor may prescribe you with necessary medications.
Smoking, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, lack of exercise, obesity and diabetes are the major causes of heart disease.
A heart attack is a condition that occurs when the supply of blood and oxygen to a particular area of the muscle gets disrupted. This blockage is the leading cause of arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat) that cause a fatal decline in the pumping function of the heart.
It is a type of fat substance produced in the human liver. There are two types of this fat-saturated and unsaturated. Butter, Ghee, red meat and coconut oil contain unsaturated fat which is harmful to the body.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition wherein cholesterol along with calcium and blood clot gets deposited in the arteries and creates stiffness.
Clogged arteries refer to a medical condition wherein the calcium deposits, fats, salt and fibrin accumulate within the walls of the artery. The clogged arteries put a person at risk of a heart attack. The other treatments available besides Bypass Surgery are Angioplasty and Stent.
Angina refers to the chest pain which occurs in the area of your heart muscle due to the shortage of oxygen. Angina has two forms: Stable Angina and Unstable Angina. While Stable angina takes place in the case of bodily exertion and decreased flow of oxygen in the heart, unstable angina is the same case but is not relieved by rest. A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs due to the blockage in the heart muscle, preventing it from oxygen and blood inflow.
The cardiac rehabilitation program is a medically supervised program that helps in the improvement of the health and well-being of people suffering from different kinds of heart problems.
Radio Frequency Ablation is a procedure wherein radio-frequency energy is targeted to those areas that cause an abnormal heartbeat.
An electrophysiology study is done for the diagnosis and treatment to study the arrhythmia (irregular heartbeats).
It is an electronic device that helps to normalize your heartbeat and produce electric pulses to speed your heart rate.
Coronary angiography is a specialized test performed to examine the blood supply and functioning of the arteries in the heart.
Congenital heart disease refers to the structure and abnormalities of the heart & great vessels which is present since birth. The abnormal conditions are as follows: holes in the walls, narrowing of blood vessels and abnormal location of blood vessels.
These are the unusual sounds that occur while the heart beats. A doctor can hear them by using a stethoscope. Most of the time these murmurs do not serious health problems.