What is Retina ?
The delicate inner lining of the eye which is around 1 millimeter thick is known as the retina. A number of sight-threatening problems can occur in the retina. If there is any damage caused to the retina, it is possible that a patient may develop some amount of vision loss. Diabetic retinopathy, retinal tears, macular degeneration and retinal detachment are the common problems associated with retina. Any one of these conditions can result in total blindness.
What is Retinal Detachment ?
When the retina separates from its attachments in the eye that lies under the tissue is termed as retinal detachment. These detachments are due to retinal tear, hole or break. A retinal break can happen when the vitreous gel separates or lose its own attachment to the retina. This is most commonly happens in the retina’s peripheral parts. With the process of aging, the vitreous gel first contract and after that becomes further liquid. A retinal tear could result when the liquid vitreous gel pulls on the retina. A retinal detachment happens when the liquid passes through the tear pulls the retina from the back of the eye.
In retinal detachment surgery, the retina is reattached to the back of the eye in order to seal any holes or breaks. The attachment can get weak if there is a hole or break in the retina and the fluid gets accumulated under it.
Symptoms of Retinal Detachment
- When the detachment progresses, a curtain or a shadow develops over the person’s visual field.
- When a large number of floaters appear suddenly such as small pieces of debris appears in the vision field that seem like strings, hair or spots and are floating in the eyes.
- When in the affected area, there are sudden flashes of light.
Causes forRetinal Detachment
- Advanced diabetes
- An inflammatory eye disorder
- Contraction or shrinkage of the vitreous gel which fills within the eye. This creates in retinal tear that leads to retinal detachment.
Treatment of Retinal Detachment
Vitrectomy : Vitrectomy surgical procedure is meant for big tears. There is a removal of the vitreous gel which is then replaced by a saline solution.
Freezing (cryopexy) or Laser (thermal) : The early diagnosis in both these procedures can repair a tear.
Pneumatic Retinopexy : The surgery can be used only when the tear is small and can be easily closed. The doctor injects a tiny gas bubble into the patient’s eye which then increases and presses itself against the retina. By using this, the tear is closed. A tear can be sealed by using cryopexy or laser.
Scleral Buckle : In this, the silicone band is sewn around the white of the eye. The white of the eye is also known as sclera and the sclera is then pushed to the tear till the time the tear heals. This silicone band remains attached permanently and is invisible. Further, a thermal treatment may also be required for sealing the tear.
The retinal tears cause no pain. A large number of flashes and floaters and reduced vision are the symptoms of retinal tears. The early detection of the retinal tears is required so as to prevent it from getting worse. Laser treatment is used for treating retinal tears in order to prevent it from developing into retinal detachment. The goal of the treatment is to prevent the vitreous gel from leaking through the tear. This is done by creating a scar around the retinal tear. This treatment helps in getting back normal vision and it also prevents serious vision loss conditions.
As the age progresses, the vitreous body contract and pull away from the retina. The vitreous body is attached loosely to the retina and it pulls away the tear that may happen at a weak spot in the retina. Over the period of time, the retinal holes and tears can also develop by the degeneration of the retinal tissue. The retinal holes and tears generally occurs in the retinal periphery and causes some effect on the vision. These retinal tears have no symptoms. Their formation could be connected with floaters, cobwebs, smokes and sudden flashes of light within the eye. Laser or cyrotherapy is the two small procedures by which the hole is sealed by the doctor.
Vitreo Retinal Surgery
The surgical procedure by which the disorders of the macula, retina and vitreous are treated is known as vitreo retinal surgery. An ophthalmologist uses specialized instruments, solutions and techniques for treating the conditions such as macular degeneration, uveitis, retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy. The vitreous and retinal problems can result in vision problem or blindness. The vitreo retinal surgery has proved very beneficial preventing the severe loss of vision.
Epiretinal Membrane Surgery
This disease of the eye (epiretinal membrane) is known by many names such as surface wrinkle retinopathy, macular pucker and preretinal fibrosis. This serious condition results in distorted and blurred vision. This eye disease can also occur along with other eye problems like eye injury, retinal detachment and retinal blood vessel problems. This disease is not connected with any other body problems. Visual symptoms can be caused by epiretinal membranes. The retina may cause wrinkled or distorted vision due to the contraction of epiretinal membrane. A patient can experience either loss of central acuity or blurred vision.
The epiretinal membrane surgery is performed for removing the epiretinal membrane. Only severe symptoms require surgery. If both the eyes are involved then a magnifier can improve the near vision of the patient. Also by strengthening the bifocals, the vision can be improved. Virectomy surgery is performed for removing the membrane.
Retinal Laser Surgery
To treat different retinal conditions, laser surgery is used. A concentrated laser beam light is beamed on the retina. The entire process involves no pain and take about ten to thirty minutes to complete. The goal of treating is to prevent vision loss. The different eye conditions treated by the means of laser are retinal tears and holes, age related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and other retinal vascular disorders.
Cost of Retinal Surgery
The cost of retinal surgery in India is very low as compared to other countries. All the surgeons in India are well trained and certified.