Azoospermia is a medical condition in which measurable sperm are absent in the semen. It is a case of male infertility which may be present from birth or develop later in life. Azoospermia is found in 1% of all men and 15% of infertile men. Simply put, the presence of fluid ejaculate doesn't indicate the existence of sperm cells. There can be cases where men with azoospermia might have few sperms in the semen, but they get unnoticed in some of the tests. This is why it is recommended to consult a good fertility expert for the best advice and treatment.
Some of the symptoms of Azoospermia are:
- Decreases body and facial hair
- Hormone or chromosome abnormalities
- Lack of sexual drive
- Failed attempts to get your partner pregnant
- Swelling, pain or a lump in the testicle area
It is referred to as the obstruction in the reproduction tract due to blockage. It is a common urological condition in which the sperm are being produced inside the testicles but due to blockage or obstruction in the tubing, the sperms do not get to enter into the semen. There are a few reasons that lead to obstructive azoospermia, one of which is vasectomy. Furthermore, the patient himself is also aware of the same. In such cases, the doctor will recommend surgical sperm extraction procedures wherein a measurable amount of sperms are extracted from the male for use during the IVF cycle.
It is a medical condition in which sperm production in the testicle is very low or merely detectable. Non-obstructive Azoospermia is considered a severe case of male infertility in which the tubes are open, but the level of sperm production is very low. However, due to advances made by doctors, this medical condition can be combated with the help of Stem cell therapy and IVF treatment. In case the patient is not willing to opt for IVF treatment using donor sperm, then an assessment for stem cell therapy is carried out. A few important tests are to be conducted to assess the same, as mentioned below:
- Semen analysis + Biopsy- this test is conducted to find the cause of male infertility.
- Blood tests namely beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and Alpha-fetoprotein are done. The results of the same help the doctor to proceed to the next step, as the non-existence of neoplastic change in the testicle has been confirmed.
Furthermore, once it is confirmed that the patient is eligible for stem cell therapy, some other standardized tests are to be carried out before the surgery.
- Examination of the patient’s vitals
- Complete blood count
- Screening of an infectious disease
After the evaluation of the test results, stem cell therapy can be conducted. There are two ways in which stem cell therapy for Azoospermia can be performed, as mentioned below:
- Direct injection method
- Systemic infusion method
As compared to the systemic infusion method, the success rate for the direct injection method is much higher. Simply put, stem cell therapy is a medical procedure wherein the patient’s adipose tissue is used for harvesting and the same is done with the help of liposuction. Besides, the whole procedure can be carried out within no time as only a small amount of tissue is required. The adipose-derived stem cells are left secluded in the lab and are later combined with the patient’s platelet-rich plasma and a cocktail is made to enhance the effect of the whole treatment. Later, the cocktail is injected in various parts of the testicles which may have been acting as a reason for the halt of the spermatogenesis cycle.