Pediatric Orthopedic is the treatment of muscles, joint and growing bones. The different techniques undertaken are physical therapy, braces and splints and observation of growth. Conditions like injuries, scoliosis, congenital deformities and neurological disorders. The surgeon treats the musculoskeletal problems in both adolescents and children.
Pediatric Bone and Joint Care
The procedure of development and growth related conditions in children can be disturbed by the different problems like neurological disorders, injuries, bone infections and birth malformations. These conditions can hamper the growth of the children in a long run. For this Pediatric surgery plays an important role in improving the function of musculoskeletal in many childhood disorders.
Pediatric Orthopedic Conditions
- Condition of spinal problem
- A number of limb deformities like torsional problem, knock knee problem, flat feet and bow legs
- Traumatic injuries
- Condition of burn contractures
- Infections of bones and joint problems
- Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Disorders related to postures (computer related and back pain injuries)
- Neuromuscular disorders
- Injuries related to sports activities
- Condition of Congenital malformations such as congenital vertical talus, club foot, DDH and more.
Congenital and Hereditary Pediatric Conditions
Congenital Limb Defects : In this condition, a part or the whole lower or upper limb cannot form normally or is not at all forming when the baby is growing in the uterus.
Club Foot : Club foot (talipes equinovarus) is a condition of foot deformity that is present at the time of birth. Muscles, blood vessel, bones, feet and tendons are affected by this condition. The appearance of the foot is generally broad and short and the heel is pointing downward. The forefoot turns in the inward position.
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip : It is a serious condition present at the time of birth (congenital condition) of the hip joint.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) : Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is a serious condition that is caused due to inherited (genetic) disorder where the bones breaks very easily.
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) : This is the condition of inherited (genetic) disorder of the muscles that makes them weak and are easily restored with fatty deposits.
It is a known fact that the spine has some sort of curves that are considered normal. In Scoliosis condition there is a lateral curvature of the spine that is in the shape of ‘S’. This curve can increase in size depending on the curve’s degree. The degree of increase in the curve probably more in younger patients at the time of growth spurts. The unknown conditions in Scoliosis are- Infantile Idiopathic (3 months to 3 years), Juvenile Idiopathic ( from 4-9 years of age) and Adolescent Idiopathic ( from 10-18 years of age).
- Congenital : In this, there is an abnormal shape of the spine in the vertebrae of the child specifically at the time of birth.
- Neuromuscular : This particular type is connected with other diagnosis of spina bifida, muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy.
Scoliosis can occur in healthy adolescents and children. The condition of Infantile Idiopathic can be seen largely in boys. On the other hand, adolescent and juvenile idiopathic can be largely seen in girls.
Limb Length Discrepancies
Limb length discrepancies are a serious condition where there is a disproportion of length in the lower and upper arm and in lower and upper legs. Sometimes it has been seen in serious cases that length differences cause problems in the functioning of the arm. The small variation need not require any treatment but greater variation requires a significant treatment.
Causes for leg length discrepancy
Bone Infection : The stage of growth in children can cause a serious limb length discrepancy. It can be serious if it occurs at the time of infancy. If there is an inflammation of joints at the time of growth, it can lead to differences in the length of the leg (Juvenile arthritis).
Bone Diseases : It can also cause the condition of limb length discrepancy-
- Ollier Disease
- Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
Previous Injury in the Bone of the Leg :
An injury of broken leg can cause limb length discrepancy if the injury healed in a short time. There are chances of bone getting broken into pieces and the tissue muscles can also harshly damaged just like in the case of open fracture. After the process of healing, the broken bones can grow faster for few years leading the injured bone becoming much longer.
Neurologic and Arthritis conditions are the other causes of limb length discrepancies.
Growth Related Conditions
Lordosis : This condition gives a child a swayback appearance if the affected spine shows a curvature of the vertebrae (back bones).
Tibial Torsion : Tibial torsion leads to twisting of the bones (shin bones) that are in between the ankle and the knee on the inward side. The feet of the child get a pigeon toed appearance as a result of this twisting.
Femoral Anteversion : In this condition, the thigh bone (femur) twists inward and causes the feet of the child turning inward (pigeon toed appearance). It can be easily detected in the children of age group 4-6 years old.
Osgood- Schlatter Disease : In this condition, there is swelling and pain in the area below the knee and is seen in growing adolescents and children.
Joint Pain Treatment
The joints are the connections between the bones and helps in providing support for our movement. A damage or injury can lead to problems in moving and involves a lot of pain. Rheumatoid arthritis, strains, bursitis, sprains and osteoarthritis can some of the conditions that lead to pain in the joints. Joint pains can be mild or severe and can leave in a few weeks in acute case and in months in the chronic case. The different alternative treatments, physical therapy and medication can treat the problem of joint pain.
FAQs for Pediatric Orthopedic
Ques: What is Pediatric Orthopedic?
Ans: Pediatric Orthopedics deals with orthopedic problems in children, which have been observed at the time of birth or during the growing years of the child. These problems are abnormalities of bones, joints, and muscles in a child. The best age group to treat these problems is from infants to teenagers. This is a very challenging job in comparison to general orthopedic treatments.
Ques: What types of deformities in children can be treated by Pediatric Orthopedic?
Ans: Children are weak to cope up with some of the musculoskeletal issues. Though small defects can be treated by general physicians, major abnormalities require a pediatric orthopedic involvement. These conditions can be related to spine, difference in leg size, hip issues, crooked limbs, angular deformities, knee problems, fractured bone, sports injuries, and shoulder problems etc.
Ques: How Pediatric Orthopedic and Orthopedic doctors are different from each other?
Ans: Both pediatric orthopedic and orthopedic doctors are highly experienced to evaluate and treat problems in bones, joints, and muscles. However, pediatric orthopedists are the best to treat problems in infants and children. The main focus of their medical practice is to manage children’s musculoskeletal problems and they also take special advanced training in this field.
Ques: How do I know if my child has an orthopedic condition?
Ans: If your child has any deformity at the time of birth, the doctor will inform you. However, if a child gets injured in his/her growing years, in that case, you should consult a pediatric orthopedic doctor, who can diagnose problems in your child’s orthopedic condition. With physical evaluation X-rays, and scans; the exact problem can be diagnosed.
Ques: What are the causes of orthopedic birth defects?
Ans: There are many causes for orthopedic birth defects like smoking, consuming alcohol, and other toxins during and before pregnancy. Other reasons for development of bone and muscle tissue aberrations in babies are abnormal genes inherited from parents, chromosomal disorder, several maternal conditions like rubella infection, and diabetes etc.
Ques: What is Scoliosis?
Ans: Scoliosis is a common disorder that affects various children and teenagers. It occurs in children during their growing years just before puberty. It is a condition in which the spine curves and creates the C & S alphabet. There are 2 types of Scoliosis – Congenital and Neuromuscular.
Ques: What causes scoliosis?
Ans: Almost 85% of scoliosis cases have unknown and spontaneous causes. However, rest of the cases have genetic conditions, neurological conditions, hereditary abnormalities, and muscular diseases. Many people think that poor posture, carrying heavy items, deficiency of calcium, sports activities, and leg length discrepancy (LLD) are main causes of Scoliosis, which is actually a misconception.
Ques: What is the best treatment for my child’s scoliosis?
Ans: If your child has slight curves, no specific treatment is required. However, if a moderate curve is observed in a growing child, this can be treated by wearing a brace. As per studies, a brace is effective in Scoliosis and helps to prevent it from worsening. Sometimes physical therapy is also required to control this problem. Finally the doctor decides, which treatment method will be suitable for a child as per his/her condition.
Ques: Is there any prevention for limb reduction defects?
Ans: No, there is no identified way for prevention of this defect. However, some of the defects can be treated if limb reduction defects can be diagnosed early. Pregnant ladies can take some measures during pregnancy such as taking multivitamins with folic acid daily, avoiding smoking and alcohol consumption, and choosing a healthy lifestyle.
Ques: What are the causes of clubfoot?
Ans: The exact cause of clubfoot is not known as of now. It is believed that genetic factors play a major role in this birth defect. If parents and siblings have the same problem, the chances of this deformity in the child are increased. There are some reasons due to which clubfoot can occur such as abnormal shape, size, and position of bones, spinal deformities, tendons in foot are shorter than normal, etc. However, the exact cause is unknown so there is no definite way to prevent it. However, the risk can be minimized by avoiding smoking and consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
Ques: Is it important to undergo immediate surgery for newborns having clubfoot?
Ans: Surgery is the last option if conservative treatment fails for the child. Clubfoot may be corrected over a course of six to eight weeks. The correct age for surgery is when the child is more than 6 months old. This helps doctors to easily identify tendons, bones, ligaments, and muscles to perform surgery.
Ques: How does clubfoot affect the child if it is left untreated?
Ans: If a child’s clubfoot is left untreated, it will turn inwards. He will neither be able to keep his foot evenly on the ground nor walk normally. The development of corns and ulcers will occur frequently. With the twisted foot, it will be tough to wear shoes as well.
Ques: Can a doctor diagnose hip dysplasia during pregnancy?
Ans: No, there are no particular tests during pregnancy that can forecast hip dysplasia in infants nor it can be detected during a maternal prenatal ultrasound. Although, it is believed that it is not a birth defect that can be identified. It is more of a birth condition and this problem can develop in infants even after birth.
Ques: Are x-rays harmful for children?
Ans: X-rays for children are not the same as x-rays for adults. Children are more sensitive to radiations. The high radiation exposure may slightly raise the risk of cancer in the long-term. However, it is safe for children to undergo only a few x-rays.
Ques: What happens if Hip Dysplasia is left untreated?
Ans: If hip dysplasia is left untreated, it can lead to painful hips, unusual walking, and strength will decrease. With this, other hip deformities and osteoarthritis can easily develop. If treatment delays for more than 2 years of age, many abnormalities can develop in young adulthood. Thus, it is very important to start treatment at an early age.
Ques: Why is it hard to diagnose Hip Dysplasia?
Ans: This is a silent condition that has no symptoms or signs. It is not a birth defect as it develops in infants after birth. The symptoms of hip dysplasia are also different from child to child. It can be diagnosed by an experienced physician using the combinations of symptoms and tests.
Ques: What is the approximate cost of treatment and how I can get an appointment?
Ans: To know about the cost of this treatment and appointment, kindly contact on details below:
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