Neuro and Spine Surgery in India

by Rishabh
Neuro Spine Surgery known as neurological surgery or neurosurgery, is primarily concerned with diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disorders that affect any part of the nervous system. The nervous system includes of brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. The practice of neuro spine surgery is performed for correcting diseases and injuries of the spinal cord. The procedure relives pain in the spinal cord and also restores the function of the suppressed nerves. Lower back and neck conditions are also corrected through this procedure.

Types of Neuro and Spine Surgeries

  • Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
  • Complex Spine Surgery
  • Minimally Invasive Neck and Back Surgery
  • Gamma Knife
  • Skull-based and Pituitary Tumors
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Pain Management
  • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
  • Spinal Decompression Rehabilitation Therapy (IDD)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • Cerebral Vascular Brain Disorders
  • Hydrocephalus/ Arnold Chiari Malformation
  • Disc disease
  • Percutaneous procedures
  • Open and other interventional procedures
  • Spinal malformations
  • Spinal dysraphism
  • Spine reconstruction and fixation
  • Surgical pain management
  • Spine trauma care
  • Percutaneous vertebroplasty

Conditions Treated by Neuro Spine Surgery

Neuro Spine Surgery treat conditions related to the brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. There are different procedures involved in Neuro spine surgery that focuses on specific conditions.

Neuro-spinal specialists can perform many types of surgeries to alleviate uncomfortable symptoms, correct misalignment, and repair spinal structures. Spine surgery may correct unhealthy abnormalities in the spinal cord, nerves, ligaments, vertebrae, and the discs between them. It can be performed in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral portions of the spine and surrounding tissues. Some of the conditions include –

  • Fractures
  • Brain and Spine Tumors
  • Degenerative disc disease
  • Lumbar spinal stenosis
  • Cervical spinal disc disease
  • Scoliosis
  • Neck pain
  • Herniated pain
  • Infection
  • Lumbar spinal stenosis
  • Lower back pain
  • Surgical pain management
  • Spine trauma care

Surgical Procedures of Neuro Spine Surgery

  • ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy & Fusion
  • Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement, Prestige®
  • Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy
  • Dekompressor Discectomy
  • Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release
  • Interspinous Process Decompression – X-STOP®
  • Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)
  • Kyphoplasty
  • Laminectomy
  • Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion
  • Lumbar Radiofrequency Neurotomy
  • Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
  • Minimally-Invasive Lumbar Microdecompression
  • Minimally-Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
  • PLIF: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
  • Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
  • Total Disc Replacement
  • Vertebroplasty
  • XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

All Elective Craniotomies

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure. In this method, a part of the bone flap is removed from the skull to expose the brain. After the surgery is over, the temporarily removed bone flap is later replaced. In all elective craniotomy, the bone flap is removed from any part of the skull. The process in which frontal bone flap is removed is known as a frontal craniotomy.

All intra-dural Spinal Surgeries including implant

All intra-dural spinal surgeries including implant cover all the spinal surgeries carried out to correct a disorder or a disease associated with the spinal nerve or spinal cord. Procedures such as spine fusion surgery with instrumentation and spinal fusion surgery are also included.

All Microscopic Operations including implant

Almost all the neurologists in India used an operating microscope. These latest model microscopes offer excellent lighting, optics and zoom features. The controls available on the microscope are motorized for ease of use and precision. Neuronavigation, stereotactic surgery and many other treatments are included in this.

Brachial Plexus Injuries/Stereotactic Procedures

Neurosurgeons use the stereotactic technique to place a needle into a very small lesion or tumor with an accuracy of one millimeter. Brachial plexus injuries are often cured with techniques like nerve transfer, nerve graft and muscle transfer techniques.

Brain Tumor

A radiation therapy, surgery or chemotherapy is usually suggested to treat brain tumors. There are many factors upon which the treatment for brain tumors depends. Size of the tumor, its and locations are some of them.

Brain Tumor Excision (Pituitary Tumor)

Tumor excision really works wonders for patients with parotid tumors. The treatment is undoubtedly highly effective. Minimally invasive procedure for brain tumor excision includes extraction of the parotid gland by making a small hole on the skull or through nose or mouth.

Brain Tumor Excision Skull base

Brain Tumor Excision Skull base is a process done to treat tumors in the skull base. A biopsy may help to remove the tumor in minor conditions. But, in severe cases, craniotomy along with excision of the tumors is carried out. A craniotomy is a process which involves removal of a part of the skull temporary to access the brain.

Burr-Hole aspiration for Abscess

It is a minor surgical process in which a burr-hole (small hole) is drilled into the skull. This is followed by draining out the pus.

Chronic subdural hematoma

A condition in which the blood gets accumulated between the outermost covering of the brain and its surface is known as a chronic subdural hematoma. In severe conditions, major surgery is suggested. It involves craniotomy along with irrigation or suction. However, in minor cases, the surgery for subdural hematoma involves inserting a small catheter through a hole which is drilled in the skull. This is then followed by suctioning out the hematoma.

Deep Brain Stimulation

The deep brain stimulation is recommended for the patients suffering from chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression and Tourette syndrome. Further, in this process, a neurostimulator is implanted. It delivers the electrical impulses through the implanted electrodes to specific parts of the brain.


A surgical process that includes removing the herniated disc that compresses the spinal cord and nerve root is known as the discectomy. The common symptoms are prolapsed disks or herniated disks.


The treatment involves injecting the bone cement into the fractured vertebra by making a small hole in the skin. The surgery works wonders in alleviating the back pain caused due to vertebral compression fractures.


Decompression surgery or Laminectomy is a medical process that involves removing the back part of the vertebra that covers the spinal canal also known as the lamina. The process enlarges the spinal canal and removes the pressure on the spinal nerves.


A crescent-shaped cartilaginous structure positioned in the joint is known as the meniscus. Thus, meniscectomy is a surgical process that comprises removing a part or the whole of the torn meniscus.

Micro-discectomies for Cervical and Lumbar Discs

A minimally invasive process, micro-discectomy for cervical and lumbar discs involves removing herniated cervical and lumbar discs.


A surgical process which involves removing a part of the herniated disc is known as microdiscectomy. A laser or a special surgical instrument is used in the process.

Peripheral Nerve Surgery

The peripheral nerve surgery is suggested for the patients having tumors, peripheral nerve injury or other disorders that affect the nerves connecting spinal cord and brain to other parts of the body.

Revision Surgery for Lumbar and Cervical Disc Disease

It is observed that in many of the cases, the patient who experienced lumbar or cervical disc surgeries may still endure the back pain because of the nerve damage. In these cases, an additional or revision back surgery may be suggested to correct the former surgeries.


Scoliosis or thoracoplasty is a surgery that includes the process to lessen the rib hump. Rods are used in this surgery to decrease the amount of curvature.

Spinal Fusion – 2 Level

A two-level spinal fusion is suggested for the patients who experience severe pain occurring at the two levels of the spine. In this process, two or more bones of the spine are joined making them immobile.

Spinal Fusion- 1 level

A procedure that joins two vertebral discs is known as one-level spinal fusion.

Spinal Fusion + Decompression + Arthroplasty

A combination of the procedures is used to relieve the symptoms in severe conditions. Spinal fusion can be accompanied by arthroplasty and decompression. The process involves extracting a bone from the pelvic bone and then using it as a bridge between the vertebrae. Spinal fusion is recommended for patients having abnormal curvatures of the spine, fractures, or arthritis of the spine. So basically, arthroplasty is the surgical reconstruction of the joint.

Trans-sphenoid operations

The trans-sphenoid is a surgical process. It is used to remove pituitary tumors. During the process, the endoscope or surgical instrument is introduced into the brain through sphenoid bone and nose.

VP Shunt or CSF Shunt Procedures

VP Shunt or CSF Shunt Procedures is used to cure hydrocephalus which means a buildup of excess cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting includes creating an alternate pathway. It is used to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid.

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