Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is the term used for a collection of disorders where the intestines become red and swollen (inflamed). This happens when an immune reaction of the body is against its own intestinal tissue. Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two kinds of inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease can affect the colon or the small intestine and it also involves any part of the gastrointestinal tract and results in malnutrition, abdominal pain and severe diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis affects the large intestine (colon). This disease results in continuing inflammation in part of the digestive tract.
When IBD flares up in the case of chronic diseases, it can lead to different symptoms that can sometimes disappear or decrease and a person can return to their normal health. The symptoms of IBD vary from mild to severe depending upon which part of the intestinal tract is concerned. Some of the symptoms are –
There is no exact cause of IBD. However, the disease could be due to malfunctioning of the body’s immune system. Ulcerative Colitis and Corhn’s disease both can be seen in the family history of patients. Few environmental factors can also be responsible for causing ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. IBD can also be influenced by psychological, infectious, immunologic and genetic factors.
The tests depend on the symptoms of IBD that include –
Complete Blood Count
Colonoscopy : This helps in examining the entire colon.
Sigmoidoscopy : The last one-third part of the large intestine can be visualized by using a sigmoidoscope. This one-third part includes the sigmoid colon and the rectum. The test helps in examining bleeding, ulcers and inflammation.
Upper Endoscopy : An endoscope is used if a patient has gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and nausea. The duodenum, esophagus and stomach are examined using an endoscope.
Surgical or medical treatments are available for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both the types of IBD- ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease can be treated with the help of several drugs. Surgery is the last option available and it depends upon the type of inflammatory bowel disease. It is possible to ulcerative colitis through surgery. Certain drugs can also be used for treating IBD.
DA Vinci robotic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure that involves less scarring, small incisions and also results in quick recovery. The robotic surgery provides the best results in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. This procedure involves patented surgical instruments, state of the art surgical platform and high definition vision. The procedure reduces the side effects of inflammatory bowel disease.
After the treatment of IBD, there is a drastic improvement in the health related quality of life of a patient. The health related quality of life is seen in both the cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
Tubular connections between the skin, the bowel or other organs are termed as intestinal fistulas. The formation of the fistulas happens when there is extended inflammation through every layer of the bowel. Then fistulas proceed to tunnel through other tissue layers. Fistulas are numerous and is more commonly seen in Crohn’s disease. Fistulas can link the bowel to the skin around the anus, to the abdominal wall, to other loops of the bowel and also with internal locations like scrotum, vagina, urinary bladder and muscles.
The IBD treatment in India is very affordable and provides best medical guidance and services to its patients.