The condition of sinusitis occurs when there is inflammation or infection of the mucous membrane of which lines the sinus cavities. The problem of swelling appears when there is an infection of the mucous membranes. The infections of fungi and bacteria cannot be drained properly. The problem of viral infection is the most common result of sinusitis. The conditions that can block the passages of the nasal are nasal allergies and results in sinusitis.
Chronic sinusitis and acute sinusitis are the two types of sinusitis. A person can suffer from chronic sinusitis when in a year there are more than 3 sinus infections that required the intake of antibiotics. The other condition is when the person has the sinus infection from more than eight weeks and the intake of antibiotics was not effective.
Types of Sinusitis
Acute Sinusitis : The symptoms of acute sinusitis is temporary and generally lasts for about thirty days. As compared to the symptoms of chronic sinusitis, the symptoms of acute sinusitis are more painful and severe.
Chronic Sinusitis : In this the symptoms happen repeatedly or stays for a very long period. People suffering from chronic sinusitis has severe recurring attacks which very annoying and painful.
How can Sinusitis be diagnosed?
The doctor will examine you for sinusitis by:
- Take a look in the nose for signs of polyps
- Check for signs of inflammation
- Tap over a sinus area to find infection
- A CT scan of the sinuses might as well be used to help diagnose sinusitis and to assess the analysis of the sinuses to determine whether surgery will be beneficial.
- MRI of the sinuses may be necessary, if a tumor or fungal infection is also involved.
- To view the sinuses through a fiberoptic scope (nasal endoscopy or rhinoscopy) may also help diagnose sinusitis.
Standard X-rays of the sinuses and Nasal endoscopy are not very responsive at detecting sinusitis.
Other tests for chronic or recurrent sinusitis may include:
- Allergy testing
- Blood tests for HIV or other tests for poor immune function
- Ciliary function tests
- Nasal cytology
- Sweat chloride tests for cystic fibrosis
What is the treatment for Sinusitis?
The prime objective of sinusitis treatment is reduction of swelling, eradication of infection, draining of the sinuses, and to make sure that the sinuses remain open. It is performed endoscopically using a fiber optic nasopharyngoscope.
- If antibiotics and other medicines are not successful in opening the sinus, and there is a structural abnormality of the sinus such as nasal polyps, which can obstruct sinus drainage, surgery may be needed. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the standard surgical treatment for sinusitis. This surgery removes anatomical and pathological obstructions associated with sinusitis.
- Emergency surgery is almost at all times necessary in patients who show signs that infection has spread beyond the nasal sinuses into the bone, brain, or other parts of the skull.
- Fungal infections must be diagnosed early followed by immediate surgical debridement, antifungal drugs (Amphotericin B) and stabilizing any underlying health problem.
- In some cases a deviated nasal septum (wall between the nostrils that separates the two nasal passages) can interfere with the drainage of the sinuses, resulting in repeated sinus infections. Septoplasty is the surgical treatment to straighten a deviated septum.
Types of Sinus Surgery
Traditional Surgery : This sinus surgery procedure is performed when there is a sinusitis complications. The complications can occur due to facial bone infection, growth of pus and brain abscess. The surgeon then creates an opening inside the sinus either through the facial skin or in the mouth.
Endoscopic (Sinoscopy) Surgery : The surgery is performed for severe or difficult to treat sinus problems. & for the removal of little amounts of bone or nasal polyps that is obstructing the opening of the sinus. The purpose of this surgery is to increase the quantity of the air that flows from the sinuses and it allows to drain off the mucus from the nose properly. A light endoscope tool is used by the doctor to remove the materials that are blocking the sinuses. The surgery can relief from-
- Facial pain and nasal blockages
- Can improve the sense of taste and smell
- Breathing is improved
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is the primary approach used today for the surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis. In this minimally invasive technique sinus air cells and sinus ostia are opened under direct visualization. The goal of this procedure is to restore sinus ventilation and normal function. The procedure can be performed under general or local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. It leaves less or no scars and patient go home from hospital the same day. This type of surgery usually takes about a week to make a full recovery.
A recent alternative to functional endoscopic sinus surgery is balloon sinuplasty. Sinus balloon surgery is a less invasive technique where no cutting of tissue or nasal bone is involved. It is a surgical endoscopic procedure that is used to treat blocked sinuses. The balloon sinus device is used to treat the patients having chronic sinus infections. The balloon device is disposable and is attached with a rod. Through the nasal cavity and into the sinuses, the device is inserted. It is made to expand and is then used to remodel the sinus opening.
Maxillary Sinus Surgery
The location of maxillary sinuses is behind the cheekbones. Adults usually suffer from these sinuses that causes infection. The osteomeatal complex is the area beneath the corners of the eyes where the maxillary sinuses drain. The blockage happens as the sinuses do not drain properly that ultimately leads to infection. Maxillary Antrostomy is the procedure by which the blocked sinus opening can be cleared. Uncinectomy is the procedure used for clearing the complex of osteomeatal. Both of these procedures are performed together.
Nasal Airway Surgery
The surgical procedure of nasal surgery is performed to repair the nasal cavity’s abnormal structures. The nasal cavity is made up of many bones, cartilage and tissues. This nasal cavity enlarges from the nostrils to reach the top of the nose. The surgery can help in restoring the function and airflow of a diseased nasal cavity.
Laser Sinus Surgery
Laser sinus surgery is an advanced treatment and offers a proper surgical view of the sinus area along with the nasal passages. It offers treatments for different conditions such as nasal polyps, loss of smell, congestion and sinus pain, sinus infections, chronic sinus headaches, nasal obstruction, facial pressure, nasal allergies and deviated septum.
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