Types of Sleep Apnea
The major type of sleep apnea includes:
Obstructive Sleep Apnea – The most common type of sleep apnea which can be found in a person is related to breathing disorder. In this type of sleep apnea, a person entirely or partially obstructs the upper airway affecting difficulty in breathing during the sleep or normally when the delicate tissue in the back of the throat falls during sleep. The most common symptoms found in this type of apnea are anxiety during sleep, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty in waking up early in the morning.
Central Sleep Apnea – This type of apnea results when the brain tentatively stops transmitting signals to the muscles that control breathing. The few symptoms found in central sleep apnea are chest pain at night, shortness of breath, insomnia, and hypersomnia.
Complex Sleep Apnea syndrome – This type of sleep apnea includes both obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. In this type of apnea, a person stops breathing for a long time the complex apnea syndrome is also known as treatment-emergent central sleep apnea. The symptom includes an uneven heartbeat, chest pain, and obesity.
Symptoms of Sleep Apnea
The most common symptoms found in sleep apneas are as follows:
- Loud snoring – It is the most common symptom found while sleeping a harsh sound occurs when you breathe while sleeping it happens when the air flows through relaxed tissues in your throat, making the tissues to vibrate as you breathe
- Gasping for air during sleep – The blockage of the airway during sleep causes difficulty in breathing a person starts gasping for air during sleep.
- Dry mouth in the morning – The most common symptom found in a person suffering from sleep apnea.
- Morning headache – A person suffering from sleep apnea feels a mild headache after waking up in the morning.
- Insomnia – A person suffering from sleep apnea may have trouble falling or staying asleep. This condition is known as Insomnia, it is also a type of sleep disorder.
- Hypersomnia – A person feels extreme tiredness in the daytime even after a long sleep.
- Irritability – A person suffering from sleep apnea may feel impatient and angry without any reason.
- Lack of concentration – A person may feel the absence of concentration while doing any work, it is also one of the most common symptoms found in sleep apnea patients.
Effects of Sleep Apnea
Sleep apneas are easily curable but if it is neglected then sleep apnea can develop the risk of health-related issues and starts showing its effect which includes:
- Daytime fatigue
- Heart failure
- High blood pressure
- Liver problems
Risk factors related to Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea can affect anyone at any age stage, even in childhood. Some of the risk factors related to Sleep Apnea are as follows:
- A Narrowed Airway– A person having an inborn narrow throat further tonsils can get enlarged and block the airway, children are most prone to this.
- Being Male – It is found that men are having a higher chance of developing sleep apnea as compared to women.
- Being Older – Age factor plays an important role here sleep apnea mostly occurs in the aged person.
- Excess Weight– More the weight of the body will be more the chance to increase the risk of sleep apnea. Fat deposits around your upper airway can obstruct your breathing. So obesity is also one of the major risk factors.
- Neck Circumference– Person with thicker necks might have narrower airways.
- Excessive Intoxication– Consumption of excessive alcohol, and sedatives have a higher risk of developing sleep apneas. Smoking can increase the amount of soreness and fluid retention in the upper airway which causes a major risk factor.
Tests related to Sleep Apnea
To diagnose the disorder following tests are included to detect sleep apnea:
Home sleep tests: These tests usually measure your heart rate, blood oxygen level, airflow, and breathing patterns. The tests are very simple and can be used at home to diagnose sleep apnea. However, if the consequences are unusual, your doctor might prescribe a therapy without further testing.
Nocturnal Polysomnography – In this test a person is observed by medical equipment that monitors the heart, lung, breathing patterns, arm and leg gestures, blood oxygen levels, and brain activity while sleeping.
Treatments for Sleep Apnea
The doctor may recommend a simple change in your daily routine and lifestyle. The doctor also suggests not to consume junk and fatty food also to quit smoking and zero consumption of alcohol. Further sleep apnea can be cured with therapies and surgery. The treatments related to Sleep Apnea are as follows:
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) – This therapy includes a machine that delivers air pressure through a mask while sleeping. This therapy is done in a state of mild to critical sleep apnea. Generally, CPAP is a mask that fits over the nose or mouth and gently blows air into the airway to help keep it open during sleep.
Implants – Soft spikes, normally composed of polyester or plastic, are surgically rooted in the soft palate after receiving the anesthetic.
Jaw repositioning – It is the method in which a person's jaw is pushed forward from the remainder of the facial bones. This increases the space behind the tongue and soft palate, causing less blocking. In the medical term, this method is known as maxillomandibular advancement.
Nerve stimulation – In this surgery, a stimulator is inserted for the hypoglossal nerve that regulates tongue movement. After the surgery, the increased stimulation helps hold the tongue in a position that retains the airway open.
Tissue removal – In this type of surgery, the doctor removes tissue from the rear of the mouth and top of the throat. In this process, the tonsils and adenoids of a person are also removed.
Tissue shrinkage – This is the other option of the surgery in which the surgeon shrinks the tissue at the rear of the mouth and the back of the throat using radiofrequency ablation. This method might be done to cure mild to moderate sleep apnea.
Tracheostomy – In the case of a life-threatening situation where all the other treatments have failed to cure sleep apnea the surgery is done. In this method, the surgeon makes an opening in the neck and inserts a metal or plastic tube through which a person breathes.
Robotics Treatment – Transoral Robotic Surgery (TOBS) is an advanced surgical procedure in which the surgery performed through the mouth. During the procedure, the doctor removes the obstructive tissue from the mount, tongue, or throat of the patient. This technique is usually used for the patient who suffers from Obstructive Sleep Apnea. The robotic surgery provides surgeons a more precise and less invasive surgical option for the treatment of breathing problems during sleep. This state-of-art surgery features special wristed instruments that enable the surgeon to operate with enhanced vision, control, expertise, and precision.