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Nephrotic Syndrome Treatment in India

by Rishabh

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

A kidney disorder in which a lot of protein in the urine is excreted by the body is known as nephrotic syndrome. This condition is due to damage caused to the clusters of small blood vessels in kidneys which is responsible for filtering excess waste and water by the means of blood. This syndrome results in the swelling of ankles and feet and it also increases the chance of other health problems.

Types of Nephrotic Syndrome

Minimal change is considered as the most common type of nephrotic syndrome in children that can be seen in almost 80% of cases. In this the cells look normal and only have minimal changes that include –

  • The need of kidney transplant or dialysis is rarely required
  • It generally responds to steroids
  • It can relapse less commonly when the child grows older
  • Function of the kidney is not affected
  • It is connected with most positive outcomes in children with nephrotic syndrome
  • Usually it is outgrown when a child is a young adult

Focal Sclerosis is yet another type of nephrotic syndrome which is considered as the most aggressive form of nephrotic syndrome that can result in following conditions –

  • It requires kidney transplant or dialysis
  • It usually affects about 10% of children with nephrotic syndrome
  • It require many biopsies for diagnosing
  • It does not respond to steroid therapy

Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome

The disorders that can damage the kidneys causes nephrotic syndrome. This damage results in excess protein in the urine.

Membranous glomerulonephritis is known as the most common cause in adults while minimal change disease is considered as the most common cause in children. Nephrotic syndrome may also occur from –

  • Use of some drugs
  • Cancer
  • Genetic disorders
  • Infections such as mononucleosis, throat or hepatitis
  • Diseases that include multiple myeloma, diabetes, amyloidosis and systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Immune disorders

This syndrome can also occur with kidney disorders that include –

  • Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis
  • Segmental and focal glomerulosclerosis
  • Glomerulonephritis

Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome

The most common symptom of nephrotic syndrome is swelling (edema) that can happen in –

  • The belly area (swollen abdomen)
  • Around the eyes and in the face (facial swelling)
  • Legs and arms particularly in the ankles and feet

Some of the other symptoms are –

  • Weight gain due to fluid retention
  • Foamy appearance of the urine
  • Poor apetite

Diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome

Different tests are performed for diagnosing nephrotic syndrome that include –

  • Urinalysis
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  • Albumin blood test
  • Creatinine clearance – urine test
  • Blood chemistry test like comprehensive metabolic panel or basic metabolic panel
  • Creatinine – blood test
  • A kidney biopsy is also required for finding the cause of disorder

Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome

The aim of treatment is to delay kidney damage by providing a relief from its symptoms and also preventing its complications. A particular type of treatment depends upon the cause of the disease. A good diet is necessary in children for reducing excess protein in the urine. The tissue swelling may also be reduced by decreasing the intake of fluid. A specific diet is recommended for adults also that should be low in protein and salt. Some of the medications are required for treating nephrotic syndrome that include –

  • Immune system suppressing medications (these medications help in controlling the immune system).
  • Blood pressure medications
  • Water pills
  • Blood thinners
  • Cholesterol-reducing medications

Cost of Nephrotic Syndrome Treatment

The nephrotic syndrome cost in India is substantially lower than as compared to the surgical costs in America and Europe. The availability of latest technology and medical facilities attracts a large number of national as well as international patients to India.

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